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PHP实现网络请求的方法总结

PHP 2022-08-31 16:08:09 988

一、分析php发送网网络请求的方法

对于php发送网络请求,我们最常用的请求就是curl,有时我们也会用到file_get_contents函数发送网络请求,但file_get_contents只能完成一些间单的网络请求,稍复杂的就无法完成,例如文件上传,cookies,验证,表单提交等,用php的curl可以使用URL的语法模拟浏览器来传输数据,因为它是模拟浏览器,因此它同样支持多种协议,FTP, FTPS, HTTP, HTTPS, GOPHER, TELNET, DICT, FILE 以及 LDAP等协议都可以很好的支持,包括一些:HTTPS认证,HTTP POST方法,HTTP PUT方法,FTP上传,keyberos认证,HTTP上传,代理服务器,cookies,用户名/密码认证,下载文件断点续传,上传文件断点续传,http代理服务器管道,甚至它还支持IPv6,scoket5代理服务器,通过http代理服务器上传文件到FTP服务器等等,所以我们在开发中尽量用curl发网络请求,无论是简单还是复杂

二、file_get_contents发送网络请求示例

file_get_contents(path,include_path,context,start,max_length)

一般用file_get_contents或者fopen, file , readfile等函数读取url的时候 会创建一个$http_response_header变量保存HTTP响应的报头,使用fopen等函数打开的数据流信息可以用stream_get_meta_data获取

$html = file_get_contents('http://www.baidu.com');
print_r($http_response_header);
$fp = fopen('http://www.baidu.com', 'r');
print_r(stream_get_meta_data($fp));
fclose($fp);

摸拟post请求:

$url = 'http://192.168.1.1/test.php';
$data = array(
    'keyword' => 'test data',
);
$content = http_build_query($data);
$content_length = strlen($content);
$options = array(
    'http' => array(
        'method' => 'POST',
        'header' =>
        "Content-type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded\r\n" .
        "Content-length: $content_length\r\n",
        'content' => $content
    )
);
echo file_get_contents($url, false, stream_context_create($options));

三、php 用curl发送网络请求

curl可以支持https认证、http post、ftp上传、代理、cookies、简单口令认证等等功能,使用前需要先在你的PHP环境中安装和启用curl模块,这里有两种写法供大家参考:

<?php
function geturl($url){
        $headerArray =array("Content-type:application/json;","Accept:application/json");
        $ch = curl_init();
        curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_URL, $url);
        curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, FALSE); 
        curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYHOST, FALSE); 
        curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1);
        curl_setopt($ch,CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER,$headerArray);
        $output = curl_exec($ch);
        curl_close($ch);
        $output = json_decode($output,true);
        return $output;
}
 
 
function posturl($url,$data){
        $data  = json_encode($data);    
        $headerArray =array("Content-type:application/json;charset='utf-8'","Accept:application/json");
        $curl = curl_init();
        curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_URL, $url);
        curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, FALSE);
        curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYHOST,FALSE);
        curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_POST, 1);
        curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, $data);
        curl_setopt($curl,CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER,$headerArray);
        curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1);
        $output = curl_exec($curl);
        curl_close($curl);
        return json_decode($output,true);
}
 
 
function puturl($url,$data){
    $data = json_encode($data);
    $ch = curl_init(); //初始化CURL句柄 
    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_URL, $url); //设置请求的URL
    curl_setopt ($ch, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, array('Content-type:application/json'));
    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER,1); //设为TRUE把curl_exec()结果转化为字串,而不是直接输出 
    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_CUSTOMREQUEST,"PUT"); //设置请求方式
    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, $data);//设置提交的字符串
    $output = curl_exec($ch);
    curl_close($ch);
    return json_decode($output,true);
}
 
function delurl($url,$data){
    $data  = json_encode($data);
    $ch = curl_init();
    curl_setopt ($ch,CURLOPT_URL,$put_url);
    curl_setopt ($ch, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, array('Content-type:application/json'));
    curl_setopt ($ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1);
    curl_setopt ($ch, CURLOPT_CUSTOMREQUEST, "DELETE");   
    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS,$data);
    $output = curl_exec($ch);
    curl_close($ch);
    $output = json_decode($output,true);
}
 
function patchurl($url,$data){
    $data  = json_encode($data);
    $ch = curl_init();
    curl_setopt ($ch,CURLOPT_URL,$url);
    curl_setopt ($ch, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, array('Content-type:application/json'));
    curl_setopt ($ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1);
    curl_setopt ($ch, CURLOPT_CUSTOMREQUEST, "PATCH");  
    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS,$data);     //20170611修改接口,用/id的方式传递,直接写在url中了
    $output = curl_exec($ch);
    curl_close($ch);
    $output = json_decode($output);
    return $output;
}
?>

一个函数片时各种请求:

function sendCurl($url, $data = null,$method='POST')
{
    $method=strtoupper($method);
    $start_wdmcurl_time = microtime(true);
 
    $header = array(' application/x-www-form-urlencoded');
    $ch = curl_init();
    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_URL, $url);
    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_FAILONERROR, false);
    // https 请求
    if (strlen($url) > 5 && strtolower(substr($url, 0, 5)) == "https")
    {
        curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, false);
        curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYHOST, false);
    }
    if($method=='GET'){
        if($data && is_array($data) && count($data)>0 ){
            $url.="?".http_build_query($data);
        }
        curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_URL, $url);
    }elseif($method=='POST'){
        curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POST, 1);
        curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, $data);
        if (is_array($data) && count($data)>0)
        {
            curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POST, true);
            $isPostMultipart = false;
            foreach ($data as $k => $v)
            {
                if ('@' == substr($v, 0, 1))
                {
                    $isPostMultipart = true;
                    break;
                }
            }
            unset($k, $v);
            if ($isPostMultipart) {
                curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, $data);
            } else {
                curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, http_build_query($data));
            }
        }
    }elseif(in_array($method,['PUT','DELETE','PATCH'])){
        curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_CUSTOMREQUEST,$method);
        curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, $data);
    }
    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1);
    curl_setopt($ch,CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER,$header);
    $reponse = curl_exec($ch);
    curl_close($ch);
    return $reponse;
}

四、使用php composer的扩展guzzlehttp

composer require guzzlehttp/guzzle
$client = new \GuzzleHttp\Client();
$response = $client->request('GET', 'https://api.github.com/repos/guzzle/guzzle');
 
echo $response->getStatusCode(); // 200
echo $response->getHeaderLine('content-type'); // 'application/json; charset=utf8'
echo $response->getBody(); // '{"id": 1420053, "name": "guzzle", ...}'
 
// Send an asynchronous request.
$request = new \GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Request('GET', 'http://httpbin.org');
$promise = $client->sendAsync($request)->then(function ($response) {
    echo 'I completed! ' . $response->getBody();
});
 
$promise->wait();

日常开发中我们尽量用方法三,自定义用curl处理网络请求,或用composer的guzzlehttp扩展库,有起来也很方便。

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